Correction and Retraction

Invention: Journal Research and Education Studies takes the responsibility of maintaining the integrity and completeness of our scientific content for all readers very seriously. The journal places high importance on the authority of published articles, and our policies are based on best practices in the academic publishing community. Changes to articles after online publication can only be made under the circumstances described below.

Corrigendum is a statement from the authors of the original paper briefly explaining any corrections resulting from errors or omissions. Any effects on the paper's conclusions should be noted. Corrected articles are not removed from the online journal, but a notice of correction is provided. Corrigenda are available for free to all readers and are linked to the corrected articles.

Retraction is a notice that a paper should not be considered part of the scientific literature. Retractions are issued if there is clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, which may be due to misconduct or dishonesty; if the previous findings have been published elsewhere without proper reference, permission, or justification; if the work is plagiarized; or if there are reports of unethical research. To preserve the integrity of the record, retracted articles are not removed from the online journal, but a retraction notice is provided, available for free to all readers, and linked to the retracted articles.

Publisher's Note informs readers that an article has been corrected after publication. It is issued by the Publisher and used in cases where typographical or production errors (which are Publisher's errors) affect the integrity of the article's metadata (such as title, author list, or byline) or significantly impact the readers' ability to understand the article. The original article is removed, and a corrected version is replaced. Publisher's Notes are available for free to all readers. Minor errors that do not affect the integrity of metadata or readers' ability to understand an article and do not involve scientific errors or omissions will be corrected at the discretion of the Publisher.

In such cases, the original article is removed, and a corrected version is replaced. The date of correction is noted on the corrected article. Authors should also be aware that the original article can only be removed and replaced with a corrected version within one year from the original publication date. Corrections to articles with a publication date older than one year will be documented only by the Publisher's Note.